What is ionic bonding in NaCl and how to explain it

Ionic bonding is the bond formation when the electron transfers completely from one atom to another. Here we will discuss the some relevant examples of ionic bonding.

What is electrovalent bond or ionic bond

There is a complete transference of electrons from one atom to another to complete the octet or duplet ( in case of H ). The bond formed is called as ionic bond.

A ➡️ A^+ + e- ( Formation of cation )

B + e- ➡️ B^- ( Formation of anion )

The oppositely charged ions attract each other. This electrostatic forces of attraction is the ionic bonding. For example :

Formation of ionic bonding in Sodium Chloride

Sodium has 11 atomic number. The electronic configuration of Na = 2, 8, 1. and Na^+ = 2, 8

The electronic configuration of Cl = 2, 8, 7 and Cl^- = 2, 8, 8

Na^+ + Cl^- = NaCl

Electrovalency is the number of loss or gain of electrons during the formation of electrovalent bond.

Co-ordination number of an ion is defined as the number of oppositely charged ions present as the nearest neighbours around that ion in an ionic crystal.

Factors affecting the formation of Ionic bonding

  1. Ionisation energy is the required amount of energy to remove the valence electron to form cation. Lesser is the ionisation energy, more are the chances of ionic bond formation. I.E. of alkali metals ( group 1 ) is lower than that of alkaline earth metals.

A ➡️ A^+ + e- ( Formation of cation ) Ionisation energy

2. Electron affinity is the energy change when an atom gains extra electron to form anion. More the electron affinity

higher is the chance to form ionic bond.

B + e- ➡️ B^- ( Formation of anion ) Electron affinity

3. Lattice energy is the energy released when the requisite number of gaseous positive and negative ions combine to form 1 mole of the ionic compound. Higher the lattice energy released, more stable is the ionic compound.

A^+ + B^- ➡️ AB ( Formation of Ionic compound ) Lattice Energy

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