What are the types of Hydrogen bonding and how to explain them

There are 2 types of hydrogen bonding. Here, we will discuss the types of hydrogen bonding with their examples

Types of Hydrogen bonding

There are 2 types of H-bonding :

1. Intermolecular Hydrogen bonding

  1. When H-bonding takes place between different molecules of the same compound or different compounds.
  2. For example HF, H2O, ROH, H2O and NH3 etc.

2. Intramolecular Hydrogen bonding

  1. H-bonding forms between H-atom of one group with the more electronegative atom of the other group.
  2. For example o-Nitrophenol, Salicylic acid.
  3. It is also called as chelation effect.

Conditions for H-bonding

  1. The molecule must have a highly electronegative atom linked to H atom.
  2. The size of the electronegative atom should be small.
  3. F, O and N atoms form H-bonds. They have small size and high electronegativity.

Conditions of intramolecular H-bonding

  1. The molecule should be planar.
  2. H-bonding lead to the formation of 6 membered ring including H atom.
  3. The molecule should contain 2 groups. One group contains H-atom linked to a highly EN atom. The other group contains a highly EN atom linked to lesser EN atom.

Effects of Intramolecular H-bonding

  1. The intramolecular H-bonding prevents association of molecules.
  2. It causes a contraction of molecule. This results in decrease in surface area.
  3. It lowers the melting point and boiling point.
  4. Intramolecular H-bonding decreases the solubility.
  5. It increases the vapour pressure.

Significance of H-bonding

  1. H2O present in living cells is attached to protein molecules by H-bonding.
  2. Structure of proteins & nucleic acids is stable due to H-bonding.

Effects of Intramolecular H-bonding is opposite to that of intermolecular H-bondng.

FAQs on types of H-bonding

  1. Out of o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol, which has higher boiling point and why ?

Answer : P-nitrophenol has higher boiling point because there is intermolecular H-bonding. O-nitrophenol has intramolecular H-bonding.

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