What are p-Block elements and how to write the E.C.

p-block elements are those in which the valence electron enters in the p-orbital. Here we will discuss the general characteristics of p-block elements.

What are p-Block elements

  1. These elements are those in which the valence electron enters in the p-orbital.
  2. p-subshell has 3 degenerate orbitals. Therefore it can accommodate a maximum of 6 electrons.
  3. It includes the elements from group 13 to group 18.
  4. These groups receive the last electron in 2p, 3p, 4p, 5p,6p orbitals respectively.
  5. s-orbital of the outermost shell is already complete. Thereafter, the filling of p-orbital occurs.
  6. The total elements are 36 p-block elements.

General electronic configuration of p-block

  1. General electronic configuration of these block elements : ns2 np1-6 where n = 2 – 7
  2. The elements of group 18 are noble gases. They have ns2 np6 electronic configuration.
  3. Elements of group 17 are halogens while group 16 are chalcogens. These 2 groups are having highly negative electron gain enthalpy.
  4. Representative elements or main group elements consists of s and p-block elements.
  5. s-block consists of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals.

General characteristics of p-block

  1. These block elements include both metals and non-metals. Metallic character increases from top to bottom. Non-metallic character increases from left to right.
  2. The ionisation energy of these block elements are higher than s-block elements.
  3. p-block mostly forms covalent compounds.
  4. Some elements of this group show variable oxidation states.
  5. The oxidising character increases from left to right in the period.
  6. Reducing character increases from top to bottom in the group.
  7. These block elements form acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides.
  8. If the IE of the element is high, its oxide is acidic. Higher the IE , stronger is the acid.
  9. B2O3 – weakly acidic Al2O3 – amphoteric Ga2O3 – amphoteric In2O3 – Basic Tl2O3 – strongly basic ( group 13 )
  10. B2O3 + 3H2O ➡️ 2H3BO3 or 2B (OH)3 ( orthoboric acid )
  11. Al2O3 + 2NaOH ➡️ 2NaAlO2 ( sodium meta-aluminate ) +H2O
  12. Al2O3 + 6HCl ➡️ 2 AlCl3 + 3H2O

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