What is the preparation, properties and uses of sulphuric acid H2SO4


Notes on Sulphuric acid H2SO4 preparation, properties and uses 

Here you will study about sulphuric acid  H2SO4 king of chemicals preparation, properties and uses. Also the topic of sulphuric acid H2 SO4 preparation properties and uses is explained with the help of video and notes in the form of PDF


Explanation of the notes in video on Sulphuric acid H2SO4 preparation, properties and uses 

Sulphuric acid H2SO4 king of chemicals preparation properties and uses 

H2SO4 Sulphuric acid is known as ‘ king of chemicals ‘ is used as one of the most important chemicals used in industries and in laboratories.

Contact process for the manufacturing of sulphuric acid H2SO4 

Manufacturing of sulphuric acid H2SO4 can be done by contact process. Firstly, Sulphur dioxide is produced when sulphide is burned in oxygen from air. In the second step, Sulphur dioxide reacts with oxygen in the presence of vanadium pentoxide at 720 K, under 2 bar pressure to form sulphur trioxide.

As the reaction is exothermic, the favourable conditions for the forward reaction which leads to decrease in volume are low temperature and high pressure (Le Chatelier’s) principle .

Sulphur trioxide formed above is absorbed in con sulphuric acid to form oleum. Then it can further be diluted into sulphuric acid ( H2SO4 ). The flow sheet diagram for the manufacturing of sulphuric acid is given above in the notes.

Properties of Sulphuric Acid H2SO4

1.Sulphuric acid is colourless, oily and dense liquid with specific gravity of 1.84 at 298 K. The Sulphuric acid generally boils at 611 K and freezes at 283 k because of intramolecular hydrogen bonding present in it

2. H2SO4 dissolves in water which is highly exothermic reaction. So concentrated acid must be added slowly into water with constant stirring in order to avoid the breakage of the container due to high amount of energy released.

3. The Sulphuric acid is dibasic acid because for first H+ released from H2SO4, the value of dissociation constant of acid, Ka for the reaction is very large. But the second value of (dissociation constant of the acid) Ka for the reaction HSO4- is very low. Greater the value of Ka stronger is the acid .

4. H2SO4 is  a powerful dehydrating agent for many wet gases. Concentrated sulphuric acid also has charring action on sugar.

Sulphuric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium hydrogen sulphate and sodium sulphate salts.

5. For the manufacturing of HF, HCl, HNO3 from their corresponding salts metal halides can be reacted with sulphuric acid because of its low volatility.

6. Sulphuric acid acts as a powerful oxidising agent which can oxidise copper to copper sulphate, carbon to carbon dioxide, sulphur to Sulphur dioxide.

Uses of Sulphuric Acid H2SO4

Sulphuric acid is used in the manufacturing of fertilisers like ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, in petroleum refining, in the manufacturing of paints, pigments, nitrocellulose, products and much more.

H2SO4 is used in industry and metallurgical operations like electroplating and galvanisation etc

Sulphuric acid is used as an important laboratory reagent.

Practice Questions for Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 (FAQs)

1. Write the conditions to maximise the yield of sulphuric acid by contact process.

2. Draw the structure of H2SO4.

3. What happens when carbon reacts with con H2SO4 ?

4.  Explain why SO3 is not absorbed directly in water to form H2SO4 in the preparation of H2SO4 by contact process

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