CO Lewis structure molecular geometry and Formal charges

Here, we will discuss about CO Lewis structure molecular geometry. We will also learn about the carbon monoxide formal charges and hybridisation. Also, learn the bond angle, dipole moment according to CO Lewis structure molecular geometry and formal charges.

CO Lewis structure

As we know, carbon has four valence electrons, and oxygen has six valence electrons. To complete the octets of both carbon and oxygen atoms they share a triple bond, consisting of one sigma bond and two pi bonds.

The triple bond in CO makes it a highly reactive molecule with some unique properties like its ability to bind to metal centres in coordination complexes. CO Lewis structure indicates that the molecule is linear in shape having bond angle of 180 degrees.

Lewis structure represents the distribution of valence electrons in a molecule. But in resonating structures the electrons are not localised in specific bonds. But rather they are delocalised throughout the molecule. See the resonating structures of CO below in the diagram:

CO Lewis structure @chemistrywithmonamam

Resonating Structures of CO Lewis structure

In the first structure, one pi bond from triple bond move towards more electronegative O atom. This movement makes the negatively charged carbon and positively charged oxygen neutral in the 2nd resonating structure.

Resonating structures in CO Lewis structure @chemistrywithmonamam

One more pi bond moves from double bond towards more electronegative O atom in the second resonating structure. This movement makes carbon positively charged and oxygen negatively charged in the third resonating structure of ( CO ) You can learn the resonating structures of CO from the diagram. Visit the link to understand the concept of CO Lewis structure

Hybridisation in CO Lewis structure :

Carbon atom in carbon monoxide molecule undergoes Sp hybridisation.

In CO molecule, the carbon atom has 4 valence electrons and the oxygen has 6 valence electrons. So, CO forms triple bond to complete its octet.

Carbon atom undergoes Sp hybridisation that involves the promotion of one of its 2s electrons to the 2p orbital. The carbon atom hybridises its 2s and one of the 2p orbitals to form 2 Sp hybridised orbitals. Sp hybridised orbitals are oriented linearly to form sigma bond with the oxygen atom. And the remaining two 2p orbitals of the carbon atom form 2 pi bonds with the O atom.

CO is a linear molecule with a bond angle of 180 degrees. Triple bond between Carbon and oxygen is shorter and stronger than a double bond but weaker than a true triple bond. This hybridisation explains the high reactivity of CO and its ability to act as a strong ligand in coordination compounds.

Formal charge calculation in CO lewis structure :

Formal charge on C atom in CO

= 4 – 2 – 1/2 *6 = -1

Formal charge in O atom in CO

= 6 – 2 – 1/2 *6 =+1

Formal charge calculation in CO Lewis structure @chemistrywithmonamam

Dipole moment in CO Structure :

Carbon monoxide (CO) has a net dipole moment due to the difference in electronegativity between carbon and oxygen atoms.

The electronegativity of oxygen is higher than that of carbon. This means that oxygen has a greater ability to attract electrons towards itself in the CO molecule. The shared pair of electron in the triple bond are more strongly attracted towards the oxygen atom. This creates a partial negative charge on the O atom and a partial positive charge on the C atom. And the separation of charges creates a dipole moment in the molecule.

The dipole moment of CO is 0.122 Debye. Dipole moment points from the carbon atom towards the oxygen atom. This permits CO to dissolve in polar solvents making an important industrial gas used in a variety of processes.

Bond angle in Lewis structure of CO

The bond angle in carbon monoxide (CO) is 180 degrees. This makes Carbon monoxide molecule linear in shape.

FAQs of CO Lewis structure

1: What is the Lewis structure of CO?
A: The Lewis structure of CO consists of a triple bond between the carbon atom and the oxygen atom. It has carbon atom oxygen atom having 1 lone pairs of electrons on each atom.

2: What is the hybridisation of the carbon atom in CO?
A: The carbon atom in CO undergoes Sp hybridisation to form 2 Sp hybrid orbitals.

3: What is the bond angle in CO?
A: The bond angle in CO is 180 degree due to the linear arrangement of the 2 atoms in the molecule.

4: Does CO have a dipole moment?
A: Yes, CO has a dipole moment of 0.122 Debye. This is due to the difference in electronegativity between carbon and oxygen atoms. Hence, a partial positive charge on the carbon atom and a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom develops.

5: What are the physical and chemical properties of CO?
A: CO is a colourless, odourless gas that is highly toxic to humans and animals. It is used industrially as a reducing agent. CO can also act as a ligand in coordination compounds. Carbon monoxide dipole moment allows it to dissolve in polar solvents.

6: What is the bond order of the CO molecule?
A: The bond order of the CO molecule is 3. There are 3 bonding pairs of electrons between the carbon and oxygen atoms.

Here are some more FAQs on CO structure :

7: State how is the bond length of CO related to its bond strength?
A: The bond length of CO is inversely proportional to its bond strength. This means that as the bond length decreases, the bond strength increases. So, shorter bond length in CO indicates a greater overlap of the bonding orbitals and a stronger bond.

8: What is the molecular geometry of CO?
A: The molecular geometry of CO is linear. Because, the molecule consists of two atoms in a straight line.

9: Can CO act as a Lewis acid or a Lewis base?
A: Yes CO can act as both a Lewis acid and a Lewis base. As a Lewis acid, CO accepts a lone pair of electrons from a Lewis base to form a coordinate covalent bond. As a Lewis base, CO donates a lone pair of electrons to a Lewis acid to form a coordinate covalent bond.

Check out the structure of NH3 here

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